Table 4

Prevalence and determinants of smoking among current smokers and ever shisha smokers in the study population

Characteristicn =10 289Current
smokers n=455 (%)
Adjusted OR (95% CI)P value*Ever shisha users n=834 (%)Adjusted OR (95% CI)P value*
Age group (years)0.031
 12–14225689 (3.9)10.0003149 (6.6)1
 15–175284213 (4.0)1.02 (0.79 to 1.31)440 (8.3)1.25 (1.02 to 1.53)
 18–202746153 (5.5)1.43 (1.09 to 1.87)245 (8.9)1.21 (0.96 to 1.520
Gender<0.001<0.001
 Boys4567364 (7.9)1523 (11.4)1
 Girls572291 (1.5)0.24 (0.19 to 0.31)311 (5.4)0.52 (0.44 to 0.61)
School locality0.1820.331
 Rural2453118 (4.8)1138 (5.6)1
 Urban7833337 (4.3)0.84 (0.66 to 1.08)696 (8.8)1.11 (0.89 to 1.37)
School type0.2570.100
 SSS5785205 (3.5)1417 (7.2)1
 UBS4504250 (5.5)1.14 (0.90 to 1.46)417 (9.2)0.85 (0.71 to 1.02)
School funding<0.001<0.001
 Public7678320 (4.1)1449 (5.8)1
 Grand–aided105237 (3.5)0.91 (0.62 to 1.32)60 (5.7)0.94 (0.70 to 1.26)
 Private155998 (6.2)1.69 (1.29 to 2.22)325 (20.8)4.39 (3.66 to 5.25)
Religion<0.001<0.001
 Muslim9564398 (4.1)1742 (7.7)1
 Christian60241 (6.8)1.56 (1.09 to 2.24)66 (10.9)1.12 (0.84 to 1.49)
 Other10315 (14.5)3.17 (1.73 to 5.82)20 (19.4)2.86 (1.68 to 4.87)
Living with parents0.0140.002
 No202976 (3.7)1127 (6.2)1
 Yes8250377 (4.5)1.39 (1.06 to 1.81)706 (8.5)1.38 (1.12 to 1.69)
Home smoking<0.0010.016
 No7295249 (3.4)1551 (7.0)1
 Sometimes108575 (6.9)1.82 (1.36 to 2.43)110 (10.1)1.34 (1.06 to 1.69)
 Yes1906131 (6.8)1.67 (1.30 to 2.13)173 (9.0)1.23 (1.00 to 1.50)
Family smoking<0.001<0.001
 None7364236 (3.2)1513 (6.9)1
 Mother27430 (10.9)2.58 (1.64 to 4.09)38 (13.8)2.14 (1.45 to 3.16)
 Father119989 (7.4)1.52 (1.15 to 2.01)124 (10.3)1.34 (1.04 to 1.65)
 Sibling71866 (9.1)1.68 (1.23 to 2.29)87 (12.1)1.42 (1.09 to 1.85)
 Others72934 (4.6)0.97 (0.65 to 1.43)72 (9.8)1.16 (0.87 to 1.53)
Friends who smoke<0.001<0.001
 None6790147 (2.1)1368 (5.4)1
 One67352 (7.7)2.48 (1.75 to 3.50)72 (10.6)1.77 (1.33 to 2.36)
 Two35646 (12.9)4.10 (2.82 to 5.96)52 (14.6)2.47 (1.77 to 3.44)
 Three or more762144 (18.8)5.92 (4.54 to 7.72)177 (23.2)3.55 (2.84 to 4.43)
 Not sure169966 (3.8)1.58 (1.16 to 2.14)164 (9.6)1.54 (1.26 to 1.88)
  • *Wald’s P value adjusted for age, gender and rural or urban schools.

  • Bold typeface indicates significance.

  • SSS, Senior Secondary Schools; UBS, Upper Basic Schools.